边锋游戏

噪声危害

2018-07-02  来自: 洛阳新美环境技术有限公司 浏览次数:683

对人体的危害是全身性的,既可以引起听觉系统的变化,也可以对非听觉系统产生影响。这些影响的早期主要是生理性改变,长期接触比较强烈的噪声,可以引起病理性改变。此外,作业场所中的噪声还可以干扰语言交流,影响工作效率,甚至引起意外事故。

噪声对听觉系统的影响


 噪声对听觉器官的影响是一个从生理移行至病理的过程,造成病理性听力损伤必须达到一定的强度和接触时间。长期接触较强烈的噪声引起听觉器官损伤的变化一般是从暂时性听阈位移逐渐发展为永久性听阈位移。

边锋游戏(1)ZANSHIXINGTINGYUWEIYI。ZANSHIXINGTINGYUWEIYISHIZHIRENHUODONGWUJIECHUZAOSHENGHOUYINQIZANSHIXINGDETINGYUBIANHUA,TUOLIZAOSHENGHUANJINGHOUJINGGUOYIDUANSHIJIANTINGLIKEHUIFUDAOYUANLAISHUIPING。

①TINGJUESHIYING:DUANSHIJIANBAOLUZAIQIANGLIEZAOSHENGHUANJINGZHONG,GANJUESHENGYINCIER、BUSHI,TINGZHIJIECHUHOU,TINGJUEQIGUANMINGANXINGXIAJIANG,TUOLIJIECHUHOUDUIWAIJIEDESHENGYINYOU“XIAO”HUO“YUAN”DEGANJUE,TINGLIJIANCHATINGYUKETIGAO10~15dB,LIKAIZAOSHENGHUANJING1minZHINEIKEYIHUIFU,ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANGCHENGWEI。

②TINGJUEPILAO:JIAOZHANGSHIJIANCHIXUBAOLUYUQIANGZAOSHENGHUANJINGHUODUOCIJIESHOUMAICHONGZAOSHENG,YINQITINGLIMINGXIANXIAJIANG,LIKAIZAOSHENGHUANJINGHOU,TINGYUTIGAOCHAOGUO15~30dB,XUYAOSHUXIAOSHISHENZHISHUSHIXIAOSHITINGLICAINENGHUIFU,CHENGWEI。YIBANZAISHIJIXIAOSHINEIKEYIWANQUANHUIFUDESHUYUSHENGLIXINGTINGJUEPILAO。ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONGCHANGYI16hWEIXIAN,JIZAITUOLIJIECHUHOUDAODIERTIANSHANGBANQIANDESHIJIANJIANGE,ZAICIQIJIANNEIHUIFUZHIZHENGCHANGSHUIPING。SUIZHEJIECHUZAOSHENGDESHIJIANJIXUYANZHANG,RUGUOQIANYICIJIECHUYINQIDETINGLIBIANHUAWEINENGWANQUANHUIFUYOUZAICIJIECHU,KESHITINGJUEPILAOZHUJIANJIAZHONG,ZUIZHONGTINGLIBUNENGHUIFUERBIANWEIYONGJIUXINGTINGYUWEIYI。TINGJUESHIYINGHETINGJUEPILAOJUNSHUYUKENIXINGTINGLISUNSHANG,KEYIBEISHIWEISHENGLIXINGBAOHUXIAOYING。TINGJUESHIYINGHETINGJUEPILAOFASHENGSHI,TINGLIXIAJIANG,NENGTINGDAOSHENGXIANGDEYUZHITIGAO,CONGERJIANQINGZAOSHENGDESHANGHAI。

(2)YONGJIUXINGTINGYUWEIYI。YONGJIUXINGTINGYUWEIYIZHIZAOSHENGHUOQITAYOUHAIYINSUDAOZHIDETINGYUSHENGGAO,BUNENGHUIFUDAOYUANYOUSHUIPING。CHUXIANZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGSHITINGJUEQIGUANJUYOUQIZHIXINGDEBIANHUA。YOUKEFENWEITINGLISUNSHI、ZAOSHENGXINGERLONGYIJIBAOZHENXINGSHENGSUNSHANG。

边锋游戏①TINGLISUNSHI:SHIZHIZHANGQICHUYUCHAOGUOTINGLIBAOHUBIAOZHUNDEHUANJINGZHONG[>85~90dB(A)],TINGJUEPILAONANYIHUIFU,CHIXULEIJIZUOYONGDEJIEGUO,KESHITINGYUYOUSHENGLIXINGYIXINGZHIBUKEHUIFUDEBINGLIGUOCHENG。ZHUYAOBIAOXIANZAIGAOPIN(3000Hz、4000Hz、6000Hz)RENYIPINDUANCHUXIANYONGJIUXINGTINGYUWEIYIDAYU30dB,DANWUYUYANTINGLIZHANGAI,YOUCHENGGAOPINTINGLISUNSHI。GAOPINTINGLISUNSHI(TEBIESHIZAI3000~6000Hz)KEZUOWEIZAOSHENGXINGERLONGDEZAOQIZHIBIAO。

②ZAOSHENGXINGERLONG:DANGGAOPINTINGLISUNSHIKUOZHANZHIYUYANPINLVSANPINDUAN(500Hz、1000Hz、2000Hz),ZAOCHENGPINGJUNTINGYUWEIYIDAYU25dB,BANYOUZHUGUANTINGLIZHANGAIGAN,CHENGZAOSHENGXINGERLONG。BINGQIEZAI4000HzCHUYOUYITINGLITURANXIAJIANGDETINGGUCUNZAI。ZAOSHENGXINGERLONGSHIYOUYUZHANGQIZAOSHOUZAOSHENGCIJISUOYINQIDEYIZHONGHUANMANXING、JINXINGXINGDEGANYINSHENJINGXINGERLONG。

③BAOZHENXINGERLONG:YOUCHENGBAOZHENXINGSHENGSUNSHANG。SHIZAIYICIQIANGZAOSHENGZUOYONGXIAZAOCHENGDETINGLISUNSHANG,RUBAOPOZUOYE、HUOQIFASHEHUOQITATURANFASHENGDEJUXIANGSUOXINGCHENGDEQIANGMAICHONGZAOSHENGHERUOCHONGJIBODEFUHEZUOYONG,SHIWAIERDAOQIYASHUNJIANDADAOFENGZHI,QIANGDADEYAQIANGKESHIGUMOCHONGXUE、CHUXUEHUOCHUANKONG,YANZHONGSHIKEZHITINGGULIANGUZHE。SHUNJIANGAOYACHUANRUNEIER,ZAOCHENGNEILINBAQIANGLIEZHENDANGZHIJIDIMOSUNSHANG、CHUXIANTINGLIZHANGAI,BINGKEYOUYUQIANTINGSHOUDAOCIJIERBANYOUXUANYUN、EXIN、OUTUDENGZHENGZHUANG。CISHISHENGLIBAOHUJIEGOUSUOQIDEFANYINGYIJINGWANQUANBUQIZUOYONG,YINCIBIXUJIAQIANGTINGJUEQIGUANDEGETIFANGHU。

(3)耳蜗形态学的改变。噪声引起的听觉系统损伤是物理(机械力学)、生理、生化、代谢等多因素共同作用的结果。在这些因素的共同作用下,可使听毛细胞受损伤,严重时Corti器(柯替氏器)全部消失或破坏。损伤部位常发生在距卵圆窗9~13mm处。 [1] 

噪声对其他系统的影响

(1)DUISHENJINGXITONGDEYINGXIANG。ZAOSHENGDUISHENJINGXITONGDEYINGXIANGYUZAOSHENGDEXINGZHI、QIANGDUHEJIECHUSHIJIANYOUGUAN。ZAOSHENGFANFUZHANGSHIJIANDECIJI,CHAOGUOSHENGLICHENGSHOUNENGLI,JIUHUIDUIZHONGSHUSHENJINGXITONGZAOCHENGSUNHAI,SHINAOPICENGXINGFENYUYIZHIPINGHENGSHIDIAO,DAOZHITIAOJIANFANSHEDEYICHANG,SHINAOXUEGUANGONGNENGWENLUAN,NAODIANWEIGAIBIAN,CONGERCHANSHENGSHENJINGSHUAIRUOZONGHEZHENG,KECHUXIANTOUTONG、TOUHUN、ERMING、YIPIJUANYIJISHUIMIANBULIANGDENGBIAOXIAN,HAIKEYIYINQIBAOLUZHEJIYILI、SIKAOLI、XUEXINENGLI、YUEDUNENGLIJIANGDIDENGSHENJINGXINGWEIXIAOYING。ZAIQIANGSHENGCIJIXIAKEYINQIJIAOGANSHENJINGJINZHANG,YINQIHUXIHEMAIBOJIAKUAI、PIFUXUEGUANSHOUSUO、XUEYASHENGGAO、FALENG、CHUHAN、XINLVBUQI、WEIYEFENMIJIANSHAO、YIZHIWEICHANGYUNDONG、YINGXIANGSHIYU。

边锋游戏(2)DUINEIFENMIXITONGDEYINGXIANG。ZAOSHENGKETONGGUOXIAQIUNAO-CHUITIXITONG,CUSHICUSHENSHANGXIANPIZHIJISU、SHENSHANGXIANPIZHIJISU、XINGXIANJISUYIJICUJIAZHUANGXIANJISUDENGFENMIDEZENGJIA,CONGERYINQIYIXILIEDESHENGHUAGAIBIAN。

(3)DUIXINXUEGUANXITONGDEYINGXIANG。ZAOSHENGDUIXINXUEGUANXITONGDEYINGXIANGZHUYAOBIAOXIANWEIJIAOGANSHENJINGXINGFEN,XINLV、MAIBOJIAKUAI,ZAOSHENGYUEQIANG,FANYINGYEYUEQIANGLIE,DAOZHIXINSHUCHULIANGXIANZHUZENGJIA,SHOUSUOYAYOUMOUZHONGCHENGDUDESHENGGAO。DANSUIZAOSHENGZUOYONGSHIJIANDEYANZHANG,JITIZHEIZHONG“YINGJI”FANYINGZHUJIANJIANRUO,JIERCHUXIANYIZHI,XINLV、MAIBOJIANHUAN,XINSHUCHULIANGJIANSHAO,SHOUSUOYAXIAJIANG。YIBANRENWEI,XINXUEGUANXITONGGAIBIANDECHENGDUYUZAOSHENGDEXINGZHI、CANSHUYIJIJIECHUSHIJIANDEZHANGDUANYOUGUAN。

(4)DUISHIJUEQIGUANDEYINGXIANG。ZAOSHENGDUISHIJUEQIGUANHUIZAOCHENGBULIANGYINGXIANG。ZAIGAOZAOSHENGHUANJINGXIAGONGZUODEGONGRENCHANGZHUSUYANTONG、SHILIJIANTUI、YANHUADENG。ZAOSHENGYUZHENDONGHAINENGYINQIYANJINGDUIYUNDONGWUTIDEDUICHENGPINGHENGFANYINGSHILING,QIYUANYINSHIYOUYUZHONGSHUSHENJINGXITONGZAIZAOSHENGCIJIXIACHANSHENGYIZHIZUOYONGHOUDEJIEGUO。YIBANLAISHUO,ZAOSHENGQIANGDUYUEDA,SHILIQINGXIDUWENDINGXINGYUECHA。YOUYUSHILIQINGXIDUJIANGDI,HUISHILAODONGSHENGCHANLVXIAJIANG。TONGSHI,ZAOSHENGHAIHUISHISEJUE、SHIYEFASHENGYICHANG,DIAOCHAFAXIANZAOSHENGDUIHONG、LAN、BAISANSESHIYESUOXIAO80%。

边锋游戏(5)DUIXIAOHUAXITONGDEYINGXIANG。ZAIZAOSHENGDEZHANGQIZUOYONGXIA,KEYINQIWEICHANGGONGNENGWENLUAN,BIAOXIANWEISHIYUBUZHEN、EXIN、XIAOSHOU、WEIYEFENMIJIANSHAO、WEIRUDONGWULI、WEIPAIKONGJIANMANDENG。

噪声的非特异性效应

边锋游戏(1)DUISHUIMIAN、XIUXIDEGANRAO。ZAOSHENGHUIYINGXIANGRENDESHUIMIANZHILIANG,QIANGLIEDEZAOSHENGSHENZHISHIRENWUFARUSHUI,XINFANYILUANHUOSHIRENDUOMENG、JINGXING,ERLAONIANRENHEBINGRENDUIZAOSHENGDEGANRAOGENGWEIMINGAN。

边锋游戏(2)DUIXINLIDEYINGXIANG。ZAOSHENGYINQIDEXINLIYINGXIANGZHUYAOSHIFANNAO,SHIRENJIDONG、YINU,SHENZHISHIQULIZHI。ZAOSHENGYERONGYISHIRENPILAO,YINCIWANGWANGHUIYINGXIANGJINGLIJIZHONGHEGONGZUOXIAOLV,YOUQISHIDUIYIXIEZUOFEIZHONGFUXINGDONGZUODELAODONGZHE,YINGXIANGGENGWEIMINGXIAN。ZAOSHENGDEYANBIXIAOYING,WANGWANGYANGAIYIXIEWEIXIANXINHAODESHENGXIANGSHIJING,GUCHAONAODESHIGONGQUYUHUOSHENGCHANCHANGSUOYICHUXIANGONGSHANGSHIGU。

(3)ZAOSHENGDUITAIERHEERTONGDEYINGXIANG。YANJIUBIAOMING,ZAOSHENGHUISHIMUQINCHANSHENGJINZHANGFANYING,YINQIZIGONGXUEGUANSHOUSUO,YIZHIYINGXIANGGONGJITAIERFAYUSUOBIXUDEYANGLIAOHEYANGQI。ZAOSHENGHAIYINGXIANGTAIERDETIZHONG。CIWAI,YINERTONGFAYUSHANGWEICHENGSHU,GEZUZHIQIGUANSHIFENJIAONENHECUIRUO,BULUNSHITINEIDETAIERHAISHIGANGCHUSHIDEYINGER,ZAOSHENGJUNKESUNSHANGTINGJUEQIGUAN,SHITINGLIJIANTUIHUOSANGSHI。ZAOSHENGHAIHUIYINGXIANGSHAONIANERTONGDEZHILIFAYU,YOUDIAOCHAXIANSHI,CHAONAOHUANJINGXIAERTONGZHILIFAYUBIANJINGHUANJINGZHONGDEDI20%。

(4)对女性的健康影响。噪声对女性的月经机能会产生影响,常表现为周期异常(周期不规律),经期延长,血量异常(血量增多者多于血量减少),痛经等。当女性接触高强度噪声,特别是接触100dB以上强度噪声时,其妊娠高血压综合征发病率可明显增高。孕妇长期接触噪声,生出低体重儿发生率增加,对神经系统先天畸形可能也有轻度影响。 [1] 



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