边锋游戏

噪声的控制程序

2018-05-24  来自: 洛阳新美环境技术有限公司 浏览次数:547

噪声的控制程序

理想的噪声控制工作应当在工厂、车间、机组修建或安装之前先进行预测,根据预测的结果和允许标准确定减噪量,再根据减噪效果、投资多少及对工人操作和设备正常工作影响等三方面来选择合理的控制措施,在基建的同时进行施工。完工后,做减噪量测定和验收,达到预期效果,即可投入使用 [1-2]  。

ZAOSHENGYUANDEKONGZHI

边锋游戏(1) JIANXIAOSHENGYUANQIANGDU YONGWUSHENGDEHUODIZAOSHENGDEGONGYIHESHEBEIDAITIGAOZAOSHENGDEGONGYIHESHEBEI,TIGAOSHEBEIDEJIAGONGJINGDUHEANZHUANGJISHU,SHIFASHENGTIBIANWEIBUFASHENGTIDENG,ZHEISHIKONGZHIZAOSHENGDEGENBENTUJING。LIRUXUANYONGDIZAOSHENGDEFENGJI、DIANJI、YASUOJI、LENGDONGJI、FANGZHIJI、JIBENGDENG。WUSHENGGANGBANQIAODAQILAIWUSHENGWUXI,RUGUOJIXIESHEBEIBUJIANYONGWUSHENGGANGBANZHIZAO,JIANGHUIDADAJIANGDISHENGYUANQIANGDU。

(2) 合理布局把高噪声的设备和低噪声的设备分开;把操作室、休息间、办公室与嘈杂的生产环境分开;把生活区与厂区分开,使噪声随着距离的增加自然衰减。城市绿化对控制噪声也有一定作用,40m宽的树林就可以降低噪声10~15dB。但是,在许多情况下,由于技术上或经济上的原因,直接从声源上控制噪声往往是不可能的。因此,还需要采用吸声、隔声、消声、隔振等技术措施来配合 [2]  。blob.png

声音传播途径的控制

(1) XISHENGRUGUOSHINEIYOUYIGESHENGYUAN,ZHEIGESHENGYUANFACHUDESHENGBOJIANGCONGQIANGMIAN、DINGPENG、DIMIANYIJIQITAWUTIBIAOMIANJINXINGDUOCIFANSHE。FANSHEJIEGUO,JIANGSHISHINEISHENGYUANDEZAOSHENGJIBITONGYANGSHENGYUANZAILUTIANDEZAOSHENGJIGAO10~15dB。RUGUOYONGXISHENGCAILIAOZHUANGSHIZAIFANGJIANDEBIAOMIANSHANG,HUOZHEZAIKONGJIANXUANGUAXISHENGTI,NEIMEFANGJIANZAOSHENGJIUHUIJIANGDI,ZHEIZHONGKONGZHIZAOSHENGDEFANGFAJIAOZUOXISHENG。XISHENGCAILIAODADOUBIJIAOSONGRUANHUODUOKONG,BIAOMIANJIHENDA。CHANGYONGDEXISHENGCAILIAOYOUBOLIMIAN、PAOMOSULIAO、MAOTAN、JUXIANANXIANWEI、KUANGZHAMIAN、XISHENGZHUAN、JIAQIHUNNINGTU、MUSIBAN、GANZHEBANDENG。XISHENGCAILIAODUIYUGAOPINZAOSHENGSHIHENYOUYONGDE,DUIYUDIPINZAOSHENGJIUBUTAIYOUXIAOLE。DUIYUDIPINZAOSHENGCHANGCAIYONGGONGZHENXISHENGJIEGOU。ZAIJINSHUBOBANHUOBOMUBANSHANGCHUANYIXIEKONG,ZAITAHOUMIANSHEZHIKONGQIANG,ZHEIBIANSHIZUIJIANDANDEGONGZHENXISHENGJIEGOU。CHUANKONGBANXISHENGJIEGOUJISHENGQIANYOUJIANBIAN,TADEQUEDIANSHIJUYOUJIAOQIANGDEPINLVXUANZEXING,XISHENGPINDAIBIJIAOZHAI。WEILEKEFUZHEIGEQUEDIAN,JINNIANLAIYANJIUCHUYIZHONGWEICHUANKONGBANXISHENGJIEGOU,TANENGZAIJIAOKUANDEPINLVFANWEINEIYOUJIAOHAODEXISHENGXIAOGUO。TONGGUOXISHENG,YIBANKEYIJIANGDIZAOSHENG6~10dB。

边锋游戏(2) GESHENG BAFASHENGDEJIQIHUOXUYAOANJINGDECHANGSUO,FENGBIZAIYIGEXIAODEKONGJIANNEI,SHITAYUZHOUWEIDEHUANJINGGELIQILAI,ZHEIZHONGFANGFAJIAOGESHENG。DIANXINGDEGESHENGSHEBEIYOUGESHENGZHAO、GESHENGWENHEGESHENGPING。GESHENGYAOXUANYONGCHUANSHENGSUNSHI(PINGJUNGESHENGLIANG)DADEGESHENGCAILIAO,ZHONGERMISHIDECAILIAO(RUGANGBAN、ZHUANQIANG、HUNNINGTUDENG)SHIHAODEGESHENGCAILIAO。CAIYONGZHONGWENJIACENGKEYIJIANRUOZHENDONGDECHUANDI,RUGUOZAIJIACENGZHONGJIANTIANCHONGXISHENGCAILIAOXIAOGUOGENGJIA。

GESHENGZHAOYOUGESHENGCAILIAO、ZUNITULIAOHEXISHENGCENGGOUCHENG。RUYONG2ramHOUDEGANGBANJIA5cmHOUDEXISHENGCAILIAO,KEYIJIANGDIZAOSHENG10~30dB。GESHENGJIANFENGUDINGGESHENGJIANYUHUODONGGESHENGJIANLIANGZHONG。GUDINGGESHENGWENSHIZHUANQIANGJIEGOU,HUODONGGESHENGJIANSHIZHUANGPEISHIDE。GESHENGJIANBUJINXUYAOYOUYIGELIXIANGDEGESHENGQIANG,ERQIEHAIYAOKAOLVMENCHUANGDEGESHENGYIJISHIFOUYOUKONGXILOUSHENG。MENYINGZHICHENGSHUANGCENGZHONGJIANCHONGTIANXISHENGCAILIAODEGESHENGMEN。GESHENGCHUANGZUOCHENGSHUANGCENGBUPINGXINGBUDENGHOUJIEGOU。MENCHUANGYAOYONGXIANGPI、MAOZHANDENGDANXINGCAILIAOJINXINGMIFENG。JIAOHAODEGESHENGJIANJIANZAOLIANGKEDA25~30dB。

GESHENGPINGZHUYAOYONGZAIDACHEJIANNEIYIZHIDASHENGWEIZHUDEDIFANG。GESHENGPINGDUIJIANGDIDIANJI、DIANJUDEGAOPINZAOSHENGSHIHENYOUXIAODE,KEJIANZAOSHENG5~15dB。

(3) 消声 消声是运用消声器来削弱声能的过程。消声器是一种允许气流通过而阻止或减弱声音传播的装置,是降低空气动力性噪声的主要技术措施,一般消声器安装在风机进口和排气管道上。目前采用的消声器有阻性消声器、抗性消声器、阻抗复合消声器和微孔板消声器四种类型。

① ZUXINGXIAOSHENGQI。ZUXINGXIAOSHENGQISHILIYONGFUTIEZAIQILIUTONGDAODENEIGUANBISHANGDEXISHENGCAILIAOLAIXISHOUSHENGNENG。DANGSHENGBOJINRUXIAOSHENGQISHI,JIQIGUANBISHANGDEXISHENGCAILIAOZHONGDEKONGQIFENZIZHENDONG,YOUYUMOCAZULIHENIANZHIZULI,SHISHENGNENGBIANWEIRENENGDADAOXIAOSHENGDEZUOYONG。QIZUOYONGLEISIYUDIANLUZHONGDEDIANZU,GUCHENGZHIWEIZUXINGXIAOSHENGQI。ZUXINGXIAOSHENGQIDETEDIANSHIDUIZHONGGAOPINZAOSHENGYOUXIANZHUDEXIAOSHENGZUOYONG,ZHIZUOJIANDAN,XINGNENGWENDING。QIQUEDIANSHIZAIGAOWEN、SHUIZHENGQIYIJIDUIXISHENGCAILIAOYOUFUSHIZUOYONGDEQITIZHONGSHIYONGSHOUMINGDUAN,DUIDIPINZAOSHENGXIAOGUOCHA。

边锋游戏② KANGXINGXIAOSHENGQI。KANGXINGXIAOSHENGQISHIGENJUSHENGXUELVBOYUANLIZHIZAOCHULAIDE,KEYIXIANZHUDIXIAOCHUMOUXIEPINDUANDEZAOSHENG。KUOZHANGSHIXIAOSHENGQI、GONGZHENXIAOSHENGQI、GANSHEXIAOSHENGQIYIJICHUANKONGXIAOSHENGQI,DOUSHICHANGJIANDEKANGXINGXIAOSHENGQI。KANGXINGXIAOSHENGQIDEYOUDIANSHIJUYOULIANGHAODEDI、ZHONGPINXIAOSHENGXINGNENG,JIEGOUJIANDAN,NAIGAOWEN,NAIQITIFUSHI。QIQUEDIANSHIXIAOSHENGPINDAIZHAI,DUIGAOPINXIAOSHENGXIAOGUOCHA。

边锋游戏③ ZUKANGFUHEXIAOSHENGQI。CIZHONGXIAOSHENGQIJIYOUXISHENGCAILIAOXISHENG、KUOZHANGSHI、CHUANKONGPINGDENGLVBOYUANJIANZUCHENG。SHIJISHANGSHIJIANGZUXINGXIAOSHENGQIHEKANGXINGXIAOSHENGQILIANHEWEIYITI,JIZHONGQIYOUDIAN,XIAOSHENGXIAOGUOBIJIAOHAO,SHIYONGPINLVFANWEIKUAN,GAO、ZHONG、DIPINDOUNENGYONG。

④ WEIKONGBANXIAOSHENGQI。ZHEIZHONGXIAOSHENGQIDEJIEGOUSHIJIANGJINSHUBOBANAN2.5%~3.5%DECHUANKONGLVJINXINGZUANKONG,KONGJINGWEI0.5~1mm,ZUOWEIXIAOSHENGQIDETIECHENCAILIAO。BINGGENJUZAOSHENGYUANDEQIANGDU、PINLVFANWEIJIKONGQIDONGLIXINGNENGDEYAOQIU,XUANZESHIDANGDEDANCENGHUOSHUANGCENGWEIKONGBANGOUJIANLAIZUOWEIXIAOSHENGQIDEXISHENGCAILIAO。WEIKONGBANXIAOSHENGQISHIYONGYUGEZHONGCHANGHEXIAOYIN,YALIJIANGBIJIAOXIAO,RUGAOYAFENGJI、KONGDIAOJI、ZHOULIUSHIYULIXINSHIFENGJI、CHAIYOUJIYIJIHANYOUSHUIZHENGQIHEFUSHIXINGQITIDECHANGSUO。ZHONGLIANGQING、TIJIXIAO、BUPASHUIHEYOUDEWURAN。

边锋游戏(4) GEZHENYUZUNI WEILEFANGZHIJIQITONGGUOJICHUJIANGZHENDONGCHUANJIQITAJIANZHUWU,ERJIANGJIQIZAOSHENGFUSHECHUQU,TONGCHANGCAIYONGDEBANFASHIFANGZHIJIQIYUJICHUJIQITAJIEGOUJIANDEGANGXINGLIANJIE,CIZHONGFANGFACHENGWEIGEZHEN。TAYOUYIXIASANZHONGXINGSHI:

① ZAIJIQIHEJICHUZHIJIANANZHUANGJIANZHENQI,RUXIANGJIAO、DANHUANGHUOKONGQIJIANZHENQIDENG;

边锋游戏② ZAIJIQIHEQITAJIEGOUZHIJIANPUSHEJUYOUYIDINGDANXINGDECHENLICAILIAO,RUXIANGJIAOBAN、RUANMU、MAOZHAN、XIANWEIBAN、SHIMIANBANDENG;③ZAIJIQIZHOUWEIWAYITIAOSHENGOU,NEITIANJUMO,PENGZHANGZHENZHUYANDENG。ZUNI,SHIZAIYONGJINSHUBANZHICHENGDEJIZHAO、FENGGUAN、FENGTONGSHANGTUYICENGZUNICAILIAO,FANGZHIYINZHENDONGDECHUANDIDAOZHIBANCAIJULIEDIZHENDONGERFUSHEJIAOQIANGDEZAOSHENG。MUQIANCAIYONGDEZUNICAILIAOYOULIQINGSHIMIANRONGZUNI、JIANGRUANMUFANGREGEZHENZUNIJIANGDENG。DADUOYONGZAIQICHEHEGEZHONGJIQISHEBEISHANG。

GERENFANGHU

由于技术和经济上的原因,在用以上方法难以解决的高噪声场合,佩戴个人防护用品,则是保护工人听觉器官不受损害的重要措施。理想的防噪声用品应具有隔声值高,佩戴舒适,对皮肤没有损害作用。此外,不影响语言交谈。常用的防噪声用品有软橡胶(或软塑料)耳塞、防声棉耳塞、耳罩和头盔等,可根据实际情况进行选用 [3]  。


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